Our study indicates that electric fields may have a specific effect on the risk of brain tumor, and that this should be taken into account in future analyses on the carcinogenic effects of to Hz fields.
However, the risk of brain tumor could not be linked to a specific type of tumor. However, as reported figures by the operator, GdF Suez, are aggregated at field-level, no estimate can be made for the individual parts of the reservoir.
This is most likely one of the reasons that the reservoir is currently produced using a large number of wells and it is expected that a large number of wells will also be required for CO2 injection.
For this reason, no accurate estimate can be made with respect to the possible injection rates in the different parts of the field. In the feasibility study, connectivity between the different compartments in the reservoir is an important aspect of the geological and reservoir modeling.
Three of the non-producing wells have been abandoned. For 15 wells, production problems have been reported, ranging from collapsed casings, sand production, serious liquid loading and problems with the perforation gun.
These problems will at a minimum affect the operation of the corresponding wells or even render them unsuitable for conversion into CO2 injection wells.
The accumulations are all in Rotliegend sandstones at a depth of about meters. Zechstein salt layers form the sealing layers. However, it should be noted that different platforms are foreseen to be abandoned well before then.
As mentioned above, the poor reservoir quality is another issue that needs to be addressed. An unexpected association was also observed for colon cancer, using geometric indexes of exposure, but no other association was seen for any other type of cancer.
A total of 53 wells have been used to produce the different accumulations. A first order estimate of possible injection rates has been made for a part of the reservoir of approximately one third of the size representing a larger compartment such as the F-compartment, see Figureassuming one well immediately available for injection and three potential new ones.
There is significant uncertainty with respect to the suitability of the wells for CO2 injection see also below. An odds ratio of 3. Figure gives an overview of the accumulations in the LL11 area.
With respect to seismicity, the field is naturally stable, but no information is available about possible induced seismicity during the production process.
Figure Map of the LCD field and neighboring accumulations. The authors have investigated tumor risks specifically associated with electric fields, as this exposure is distinct from magnetic fields.
Exposures to potentially carcinogenic chemicals found at the workplace were also evaluated through expert judgment. The operator has not reported the total number of wells that are available for injection.
No confounding from magnetic fields or from other potentially carcinogenic hazards was apparent. The main platform is the LA platform. Advanced Search Abstract Recent studies on the association between exposure to to Hz fields and cancer carried out among electric utility workers have focused mainly on the magnetic field component of exposure.
The exposure to electric fields was assessed from measurements collected in EDF workers for a full work week. Table gives an overview of the storage capacities of the different fields in this cluster, as well as information about the year of installation and availability of the different platforms.
It is not expected that high injection rates in the LCD reservoir are possible. In addition, there are 7 satellite platforms and 4 subsea completions. Arithmetic and geometric mean exposures were included in a job-exposure matrix to determine the cumulative exposure of the cases and the controls.
The operator has reported years of platform availability starting in LC and LD. The analysis by site of tumor did not show any increased risk for leukemia 72 cases.
The current state of these platforms needs to be verified, as is also the case for platform LE reported to be available inLB and LL The reservoir quality is poor; the permeability is low.
All incident cases of cancer and benign tumor of the brain diagnosed in — among workers before the age of retirement were included. For example, sand production may have affected the integrity of the well because of erosion of the casing.
The Lblock is located about 60 km from Den Helder, but the platforms connect to the NGT pipeline which transports the produced gas to Uithuizen. The 39 wells in the status report do not include 4 wells that were abandoned before and 12 wells abandoned more recently.
Four randomly selected controls were individually matched to each case by year of birth. Although the LCD field can be considered as a cluster by itself, it can also serve as the core field of a cluster also containing fields in the Kblock see Figure Gaz De France - Calais, France CASE STUDY Project Specification Anchor System: B4TB, B6TB & B8TB aluminium bronze anchors c/w 5m & 8m of high strength polyaramid strap & stainless steel tensioning buckle.
Quantity: Anchor Design Life: 60 yrs Soil Type: Wet Sand AN ENGHOUSE INTERACTIVE CASE STUDY Gaz de France and Electric de France together comprised the National French Utility Group, a major European energy supplier producing, distributing, and selling.
The second case study examines the price effects of the Gaz de France (GDF)-Suez merger, approved by the European Commission. Gaz De France 1&2) In my opinion, Mr.
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Carl Kester, William B. Allen Source: Harvard Business School 18. Gaz de France Case Solution, This Case is about COSTS, CURRENCY, DECISION MAKING, FINANCIAL MARKETS, INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE PUBLICATION DATE: April 28, P.Download