What actions should one perform? Likewise, eudaimonia to be received as the praiseworthiness of virtuous life was understood by Plato to be rooted in the Form of the Good Platoand by Aristotle to be the highest good fundamentally immanent in us and perfectly enjoyed in the life of God.
One of the notable developments in the late twentieth century is " ethics of care. They argue that different people, culturesand societies often have vastly different perspectives on what constitutes a virtue.
This is his deontological ethics. The very word " ethics " implies "ethos. Radical virtue ethics Some virtue theorists have radically maintained that virtue ethics is able to provide principled guidance about what we should do. Principles of right action are still understood as justified by Kantian or utilitarian theories.
Anscombe may have wanted to ignore this point in her attempt to revive Aritotelian ethics. So, the above criticism directed to virtue ethics is not entirely legitimate. Then, says MacIntyre, people need to approach the issue with virtues such as wisdomright ambition, and temperance.
Conversely, if one has practical wisdom, then one has all the virtues. Act always so that you treat persons as ends-in-themselves and not as means only.
For example, the virtue of courage is a mean between the two vices of cowardice and foolhardiness. But, the important question in virtue ethics as to what kind of person one ought to be, which may be answered differently depending on the ethos, can still give real direction and purpose to people.
In a war situation, for example, the rule that you must not kill an innocent person is impractical. While the moral virtues can lead us to happiness eudaimoniathe intellectual virtues constitute even higher forms of happiness. Eudaimonia is a state variously translated as "happiness" or "human flourishing.
Kant, of course, does give motivation a central place in his theory of moralityaccording to which the morally virtuous person is someone who is disposed to act from the motive of duty. Outside the Western tradition, virtue theories have been developed in various religions such as HinduismBuddhism, TaoismConfucianismJudaismand Islamand they have incorporated ideas that may appear similar to those developed by the ancient Greeks in the West.In almost thirty years of college teaching, I wrote many things for my students, most of which are long since lost.
I have been perusing the surviving material and have found a piece that might be of interest. Virtue ethics is one of three major theories in normative ethics, the other two being deontological ethics and consequentialism (or utilitarianism).It holds the cultivation of moral character and embodiment of virtues as the essential issues in ethics, rather than the establishment of rules based on duties (deontological ethics) or consequences .Download